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Вид: Crocodylus mindorensis = Филиппинский крокодил

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Вид: Crocodylus mindorensis K.P.Schmidt, 1935 = Филиппинский крокодил

Филиппинский крокодил Crocodylus mindorensis К. P. Schmidt, 1935

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Подвергается опасности исчезновения. Некрупный вид, длина достигает 3 м. Эндемик Филиппинских о-вов. Населяет о-ва Лусон, Минданао, Миндоро, Бусуанга, Негрос, Самар и Масбате, о. Холо в архипелаге Сулу.

Придерживается пресноводных болот, мелких озер, притоков больших рек. По некоторым наблюдениям, роет норы.

Гнездостроение предположительно приходится на сухой сезон. В неволе самка отложила 3 кладки яиц между апрелем и июлем в гнездо 1,5 м в диаметре и 41 см высотой. Размеры яиц 6,1—7,2 X X 3,6 — 4,2 см.

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Общая численность всех популяций оценивается всего в 500— 1000 особей. Снижение численности вида объясняется неконтролируемой охотой, продажей молодых особей туристам в качестве сувениров и изменением биотопов вследствие закладки рисовых полей, кокосовых плантаций и плантаций сахарного тростника. Большой ущерб крокодилам наносит и развитие рыбоводства, которое меняет облик пресных водоемов.

В настоящее время на Филиппинах действует программа, предусматривающая сохранение в стране и изучение этого редкого вида. Организована станция по его разведению.

Некоторые систематики считают эту форму не самостоятельным видом, а подвидом новогвинейского крокодила.

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Ecology and natural history

The Philippine crocodile is a relatively small, little known freshwater Asian crocodile. Maximum size in males reportedly does not exceed 3m. Until fairly recently the Philippine crocodile was considered to be a subspecies of the New Guinea crocodile (Crocodylus novaeguineae). Ross (1990, 1992) has resurrected the name Crocodylus raninus for a species of lacustrine crocodile similar to C. mindorensis and C. novaeguineae based on four 19th century museum specimens and restricted to Borneo, but the paucity of specimens from that region make its identity and taxonomic status difficult to evaluate. The identity and taxonomy of the freshwater crocodiles of Indo-Malayan region requires further study.

The historical distribution of the Philippine crocodile is Luzon, Mindoro, Masbate, Samar, Jolo, Negros, Busuanga and Mindanao. The report of a small introduced population on Palau is now known to be in error. Its preferred habitats include freshwater marshes, the tributaries of large rivers, small lakes and ponds. Very little else is known about the ecology of wild populations. In captivity females are known to make mound nests and lay 10–20 eggs.

Conservation and status

Conservation and status The Philippine crocodile is one of the most severely threatened species of crocodiles. Initial population decline was associated with commercial overexploitation. Currently, the principal threats are habitat loss and killing by local people. Very high human population density and the people’s intolerance of crocodiles is the major threat. Current re-occupation of agricultural land abandoned during political strife may cause continued depletion. Surveys in 1980–1982, reported extremely depleted wild populations, with perhaps no more than 500–1000 individuals remaining. Crocodiles have apparently disappeared from Luzon, Masbate, Samar and Jolo, where they formerly occurred, and no large population exists. The species persist as isolated individuals and small populations in Mindanao, Negros and Mindoro. Confirmed sites include Nabuntaran, Calarian Lake, Macasendy marsh, Liguasan marsh (Mindanao) and the Pagatban river (Negros). C. mindorensis still occurs in the Dipuyai and Busuanga rivers on Busuanga, where they were previously thought extinct. Current wild population size may be no more than 100 non-hatchlings.

A small captive propagation program is being conducted by Silliman University with a single breeding pair and 23 crocodiles in total. The Crocodile Farming Institute, operated by the Philippines government, is breeding C. porosus and C. mindorensis for commercial and conservation purposes. CFI acquired 204 C. mindorensis between 1987 and 1992 from both the wild and private captive sources. Successful captive breeding was initiated in 1989. The CSG reviewed this program in 1992 and 1993, making extensive recommendations for improved operations. The captive stock has steadily increased from 265 (1992), to 349 (1993) and 500 (1994) of which 33 were adult females producing eggs. Annual production of live hatchlings exceeded 500 in 1993 and 1994. A number of private zoos and collections in the Philippines hold crocodiles but most of these are thought to be Crocodylus porosus as the majority of privately held C. mindorensis have been acquired by CFI.

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